Von Ralf Keuper
Den Beitrag Economics of Trust in the Information Economy: Issues of Identity, Privacy and Security aus dem Jahr 2003 kann man mit gutem Recht als wegweisend bezeichnen. Einige Jahre vor der Aufkommen der Blockchain und weiterer Distributed Ledger Technologies wurden die grundsätzlichen Fragen gestellt, um deren Antworten bis heute gerungen wird.
A number of studies have identified a lack of trust as one of the main possible constraints on e-commerce, particularly in terms of consumer protection and other worries that focus on three main aspects of trust in electronic transactions: identity, privacy and security . The potential for difficulties in establishing the authenticity of the identity of a consumer or online business is one of the characteristics that distinguishes trust issues in electronic environments from most other contexts. For consumers, identity is bound up with concerns about privacy and data protection that have been highlighted ever since computers emerged as an important technology in the 1960s. This has led to the development of guidelines and legislation on privacy and data protection, including security safeguards for information held on information and communication technologies (ICTs).
Hervorzuheben ist das Kapitel 6 Lines for further research. a) Understanding the economic impact of trust. Daraus:
- Economics of trust-related products, services and other initiatives: What are the impacts on e-commerce and the broader e-marketplace of the creation of a new industry based on developing, selling and implementing trust-enhancing products and services? What are the implications for start-up and online-only companies of the potential for established ‘click and mortar’ operations to gain greater trust because of their previous reputation? To what extent is the desire to establish ecommerce trust through alliances with acknowledged blue-chip firms and brand leaders likely to result in a concentration of e-commerce power among a few large players? Are there steps that should be taken to stimulate a more diverse ecommerce market?
- Online payment systems: How have online payment systems evolved? What new forms of payment are emerging, such as the Amazon Honour and shareware systems? What are the main trust problems that need to be addressed with these new approaches? What criteria should be used to evaluate alternative approaches? What trust-enhancing opportunities are being opened by the new types of payment system, for example in terms of the ability to allocate economic resources directly to producers without intermediation and (potentially) with each consumer contributing an amount equivalent to the economic benefit received?
b) Reviewing potential trust-enhancing solutions, including the role of the Internet and other ICTs. Daraus:
- The effect of ICTs on trust: In what areas can ICTs help or hinder the establishment of trust in electronic markets? What is the empirical evidence of the degree to which people “trust” face-to-face contexts more than other environments (e-commerce, telephone, chat rooms, audio-visual communication, etc.)? How can ICTs be deployed to enhance rather than diminish trust, for instance in providing information to aid evaluations of alternative options?
- The role of the Internet: How do the Internet and related electronic media shape perceptions of trust in e-commerce? What effect has the Internet actually had on trust? Does the use of the Internet generally increase trust, or do trusting people self-select to use the Internet? What evidence is there from general Internet use of how individual and group perceptions and behaviour affect trust issues? How relevant are these findings to e-commerce?
Heute haben wir die Möglichkeit, unsere Digitalen Identitäten eigenverantwortlich zu verwalten und durch den Einsatz von Distributed Ledger Technologies ein Vertrauenslevel herzustellen, das für die meisten Transaktionen im Netz ausreichend ist. Mit den GDPR, der ePrivacy-Verordnung, eIDAS und PSD2 wird die Stellung der Verbraucher gestärkt. Das Gesetz zum Portalverbund soll die Verbreitung von E-Governement und damit verbundener Services befördern, wie z.B. das Bürgerkonto. Privacy-Technologien haben einen Reifegrad erreicht, der das Vertrauen der Nutzer bei der Anbahnung und dem Abschluss von Online-Verträgen stärken kann (Vgl. dazu: Privacy as Technology Business).
In gewisser Weise kann in Anlehnung an Niklas Luhmann mittlerweile ein Mindestmaß an Systemvertrauen hergestellt werden. Das ist jedoch nicht nur eine Aufgabe der Technologie, sondern auch eine soziale, gesellschaftliche Frage:
- Influence of culture on trust perceptions: How do different social contexts (for example generational, educational and geographical) affect issues of trust and the design and use of trust-enhancing products, services and frameworks? What policies have attempted to address these? How effective have they been? What lessons are there for policy focusing on trust in e-commerce?
- Social inequalities in the “digital divide”: How do skills in accessing, managing and interpreting information on the web, and engaging in social interactions through the Internet, affect trust outcomes in relation to e-commerce? What is the evidence on the impacts made on this by policy initiatives?
Die Voraussetzungen haben sich jedenfalls seit 2003 z.T. deutlich verbessert.