Sei deine eigene Währung: Personal Data Currency

Von Ralf Keuper

Die Frage, ob Daten den Status einer Währung haben oder haben sollten, wird in Deutschland und anderswo kontrovers diskutiert (Vgl. dazu: Kein Eigentumsrecht an Daten?).

In Be Your Own Money: Personal Data Currency sieht der Autor keinen anderen Weg mehr, als die personenbezogenen Daten in den Rang einer Währung zu erheben. Die technologische Entwicklung mache es geradezu zwingend, personenbezogenen Daten wie eine Währung zu behandeln:

  • personal and corporate privacy vulnerabilities are converging due to the rise of innovative emerging technologies that threaten both these interests;
  • after examining the current regulatory approach to protecting individual and corporate data privacy, the current practice of keeping personal data privacy distinct from corporate data privacy will not remain tenable in light of emerging technologies;
  • we should consider protecting personal data privacy under a new paradigm under which consumers may use their respective personal data simply as currency (“Personal Data Currency”);
  • the Personal Data Currency can be implemented via a client-browser based platform built on the Digital Objects Architecture; and 
  • this new paradigm needs to evolve in light of changing technology and competing policy principles (such as free speech) would impede the development of using personal data as currency.

Technologien, die laut des Verfassers den Datenschutz und die Privatheit aushebeln, sind Recordable Contact Lins, wie sie von Sony entwickelt werden, Brain-Jacking-Technologies, Personal Cloaking Devices und die Apple Watch.

Bestimmungen, die den Schutz der personenbezogenen Daten in der Vordergrund stellen, wie die GDPR, reichen nicht aus, um diesem Wandel effektiv zu begegnen:

As technology becomes more pervasive and therefore intrusive, the lower one’s reasonable expectations of privacy become.  … In the 21st century, society will need to face more technological challenges to privacy than just “instantaneous photographs”. We are smack right in the middle of the digital and connectivity revolution! … If digital connectivity will increase, then there will also be an increase in consumer interactions with online service or goods providers. More online interactions also increase the risk of privacy violations.

Die Tatsache, dass die Anwender künftig explizit ihre Einwilligung für die Verwendung ihrer Daten geben müssen, ändere an dem Befund wenig:

If digital connectivity will increase, then there will also be an increase in consumer interactions with online service or goods providers. More online interactions also increase the risk of privacy violations. … Most users give their consent “freely” just so they can use online services some of which are optional (social media sites) and some necessities (online banking). …    In the face of an ever increasing IP network traffic as well as invasive technologies (see the ones described in Section I above), personal privacy expectations will inevitably suffer and be eroded as the right to consent would be unable to offer any real substantive protection.

Der einzige Ausweg aus dem Dilemma ist daher, personenbezogene Daten wie ein Handels- und Wirtschaftsgut, wie ein Geschäftsgeheimnis zu behandeln:

Like trade secrets, personal data is intangible (most data exists digitally), unique (like a person’s DNA) and independently valuable to third parties (like online service providers and marketing firms who would all be interested in obtaining information on a consumer’s DNA). Personal data (like medical information or financial records) usually is usually kept confidential by its owner. No one goes around broadcasting their bank account numbers online. Therefore substantively, trade secrets law appears to be merely the application of privacy principles applied to corporate entities. Yet the ironical thing is that trade secrets are afforded more legal protection than personal data even though the two are similar substantively. … Owners of trade secrets are able to seek legal redress for any anticipatory or actual misappropriations by seeking injunctions and/or damages. Further, owners of proprietary rights may also monetize their assets by sale, purchase or licensing arrangements.

Daraus folgt:

Given the projected rise of digitalization (as evidenced by enormous increases in internet traffic) and development of invasive technologies, this difference between intangible privacy rights and intangible trade secrets rights (both of which are subject to the same vulnerabilities) is no longer tenable.

Da die personenbezogenen Daten bereits in digitaler Form verfügbar sind, ist der Schritt in zu einer Personal Data Currency, zu einer Mini-Zentralbank nicht allzu groß:

Each individual would be able to have his/her own currency in effect because personal data is unique to each person. We can all be a mini-central bank creating our own currency accepted worldwide by online services and goods providers. This would be an ultimate step towards genuine financial inclusion. As long as a person has access to a simple smart device, internet and electricity, he/she can create his/her own Personal Data Currency. 

This browser-based personal data registry system allows a consumer to store his/her personal data on his/her local browser to be used as a medium of exchange.

Möglich soll das mit der Digital Object Architecture (DOA) werden:

The DOA provides a framework for managing information of all kinds when represented or converted into digital form. DOA is a logical extension of the Internet for managing information in digital form (instead of simply moving bits and bytes from one place to the other) .. The DOA provides a standardized means of structuring, identifying and accessing information for ease of use over both short and long time frames.

Personenbezogene Daten als Währung werden mit ihrer Verwendung – im Gegensatz zu den üblichen Währungen, nicht verbraucht:

A person can expend his/her personal data to acquire use of multiple social media platforms using the same information stored in his/her browser registry. In this way, Personal Data Currency is relatively more infinite in use than traditional currencies which are depleted as they are expended within the economy. 

Die personenbezogenen Daten setzen sich aus mehren Vermögensklassen zusammen:

  • Basic Personally Identifiable Information
  • Personal Photos and Videos
  • Demographic Data (ethnic group, age bracket)
  • Public Record Data (marriage or driver’s license info)
  • Social Media (messages, photos, contacts)
  • Neighbourhood (home area info)
  • Vehicle
  • Life Events (married or divorced)
  • Financial (credit card details, mortgages outstanding)
  • Travel (favorite destinations, airlines, hotels and resorts)
  • Purchase Behavior (shopping preferences)
  • Health (biomedical info, DNA sequencing)

Vorläufige Einschätzung: 

Damit Daten die Rolle einer neuer Währung übernehmen können, muss die Frage nach dem Eigentum und der einheitlicher Bewertungsmaßstäbe geklärt werden. Es zeichnet sich immer mehr ab, dass unsere personenbezogenen Daten an unsere Digitalen Identitäten gekoppelt sein werden. So gesehen bekommt die Frage nach einer vertrauenswürdigen Instanz, welche die sichere Verwahrung der digitalen Identitäten – so weit das technisch möglich ist – garantieren kann, neues Gewicht (Vgl. dazu: Sind Daten die neue Währung?).

Eng mit der Idee einer Mini-Zentralbank verbunden ist das Konzept be-your-own bank (Vgl. dazu: be your own bank, oder: Wenn die Digitale Identität das Bankkonto ersetzt).


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